Referensi Jurnal & Buku Politik

Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Volume 43, Issue 03, October 2012

souteastResearch Articles
 
From Merdeka! to massacre: The politics of sugar in the early years of the Indonesian republic
G. Roger Knight (pp 402 – 421)
Abstract
Between 1945 and 1965, what may be broadly defined as the politics of sugar in Indonesia passed
through several critical stages. The industrial manufacture of sugar had begun in the Netherlands
Indies in the mid-nineteenth century, but after a slump during the 1930s Depression, the industry
virtually went into abeyance during the Japanese Occupation (1942–45). After the war, the years of
struggle for Merdeka! (freedom) also saw a partial revival of the industry, which continued through national revolution and independence (1949) through to an incremental nationalisation in the late 1950s. Developments in the sugar industry culminated in massacre, rather than merdeka, however. The campaign against the PKI (Indonesian Communist Party) which began in 1965 resulted in the
murder of labour unionists and peasant activists associated with the sugar industry. This paper traces  the course of events from Merdeka to massacre, focusing on the sugar industry of East Java's Brantas valley. Its themes, however, relate to the industry in Java as a whole, and the question of  why the commodity production of sugar came to be so deeply embroiled in the politics of the new republic.
 
 
The Papar Land Protest, 1910–11
Danny Wong Tze Ken (pp 422 – 440)
 
Abstract
One of the recurring problems that emerged during the height of European expansion into Southeast Asia was the encroachment of European enterprises into indigenous lands. In most cases, problems existed especially in the manner that landholdings were understood by the natives vis-à-vis the new  land laws introduced by the colonial powers. This often led to disputes which resulted in the natives
being deprived of their rights. This paper looks into a case where the Dusun in Papar, North Borneo — an indigenous people — took the European colonial government to court over land rights which involved land encroachments by European enterprises and railways. The event took place barely 30 years after the first contact with European civilisation took place. The paper will examine the nature  of the case and also investigate the role played by the Dusun and their fight against the government.
The paper will also investigate the role of an English lawyer retained by the Dusun for the case, and that of the Roman Catholic Mission in championing the affairs of the indigenous people.
 
 
Khmer peasants and land access in Kompong Thom Province in the 1930s
Mathieu Guérin (pp 441 – 462)
Abstract
Based on Cambodian and French archival records, which include colonial and local administration reports, tax rosters and judicial sources, this paper explores landownership in Cambodia in the 1930s. It shows that, contrary to common belief, land access was already an issue in the 1930s. The study of tax registers of three communes in the province of Kompong Thom presents a Khmer rural society
dominated by peasants with average-sized landholdings, but where landless peasants or those with  very small holdings also existed. It also stresses that women were able to become efficient farm operators. In addition, this analysis of the different sources available shows that Khmer rural society in Kompong Thom was a form of gerontocracy dominated by men aged over 40.
 
 
Frontier capitalism and the expansion of rubber plantations in southern Laos
Pinkaew Laungaramsri (pp 463 – 477)
Abstract
This article examines the recent expansion of large-scale rubber plantations in border areas of Laos and argues that this phenomenon as well as the attendant land concession controversy must be understood from the perspective of resource frontiers. While transnational Vietnamese investment in rubber plantations represents one form of land capitalisation, their establishment in southern Laos has been part of the turbulent political economic transition in Laos. Collaboration between frontier
states which often bypasses central governance, chaotic boundaries between what is recognised as ‘used or productive’ and ‘unused or underproductive resources’, and regulatory disorientation of resource control allow what I call ‘frontier capitalism’ to proliferate.
 
 
Fishing families and cosmopolitans in conflict over land on a Philippine island
Magne Knudsen (pp 478 – 499)
Abstract
Research on the social effects of tourism and beachfront property development in Southeast Asia finds that foreigners and local elites reap the main benefits, rather than fishing families and coastal communities, who also become vulnerable to displacement. This article, discussing cleavages and co- operation among parties brought together in court cases over land on a Philippine island, demonstrates that poor coastal dwellers just north of Dumaguete City on Negros Island differ in their
ability to use social relations within and beyond kin groups to resist development-induced displacement from the increasingly lucrative foreshore. Members of families who are considered to be descendants of the ‘original people of the place’ have been far less vulnerable to displacement pressure than settlers with more of a ‘migrant’ status.
 
 
The Ifugao agricultural landscapes: Agro-cultural complexes and the intensification debate
Stephen Acabado (pp 500 – 522)
Abstract
Most models that explain the development of agricultural systems suggest evolutionary relationships between extensive (e.g. swidden cultivation) and intensive (e.g. wet-rice cultivation) forms of production. Recent information from highland Southeast Asian farming systems questions the validity of this assumption. As a case in point, this article presents the results of a combined ethnographic study and spatial analysis of the Ifugao agricultural system in the northern Philippines,
 focusing in particular on the relationships among intensive rice terracing, swidden farming and agroforestry (Ifugao forest management). Informed by the Ifugao example, this article suggests that extensive and intensive systems are often concurrent and compatible components of a broad- spectrum lifeway.